Gingivitis means inflammation of the gums (gingiva). It normally occurs as a result of a film of bacteria that accumulate on the teeth – plaque; this can be called plaque-induced gingivitis. Gingivitis could be a non-destructive kind of disease. However, if left untreated, gingivitis will get to periodontal disease, that is additional serious and may eventually result in loss of teeth.
A patient with gingivitis can have red and puffy gums, and that they can presumably bleed once they brush their teeth. Generally, gingivitis resolves with smart oral hygiene – longer and additional frequent brushing, in addition as flossing. Some folks realize that using an antiseptic gargle, alongside correct tooth brushing and flossing conjointly helps.
In delicate cases of gingivitis, patients might not even recognize they have it, as a result of symptoms are gentle. However, the condition ought to be taken seriously and addressed straight off.
There are 2 main classes of gingival diseases:
Dental plaque-induced gingival disease:
This can be caused by plaque, general factors, medications, or deficiency disease.
Non-plaque elicited gingival lesions:
This could be caused by a particular bacteria, virus, or fungus. it’d even be caused by genetic factors, general conditions (including allergies and bound illnesses), wounds, or reactions to foreign bodies (such as dentures). alternatively, no cause could be found.
What causes gingivitis?
The accumulation of plaque and tartar. The most common reason behind gingivitis is that the accumulation of dental plaque between and round the teeth; the plaque triggers an immune reaction, which, in turn, will eventually cause the destruction of gingival (gum) tissue. it’s going to also, eventually, cause additional complications, as well as the loss of teeth.
Dental plaque is a biofilm that accumulates naturally on the teeth. It is usually formed by colonizing bacteria that are trying to stick to the smooth surface of a tooth. Some experts believe that these bacteria might help protect the mouth from the colonization of harmful microorganisms. However, dental plaque can also cause tooth decay, and periodontal problems such as gingivitis and chronic periodontitis, a gum infection.
When plaque is not removed adequately, it can harden into calculus (tartar – it has a yellow color) at the base of the teeth, near the gums. Calculus is harder to remove, and can only be removed professionally.
Plaque and tartar eventually irritate the gums, this eventually causes inflammation of the part of the gums around the base of the teeth. This means that the gums might easily bleed.
Other causes and risk factors
Changes in hormones – which may occur during puberty, menopause, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. The gingiva might become more sensitive, raising the risk of inflammation.
Some diseases – such as cancer, diabetes, and HIV are linked to a higher risk of developing gingivitis.
Drugs – oral health may be affected by some medications, especially if saliva flow is reduced. Dilantin (anticonvulsant), and some anti-angina medications can cause abnormal growth of gum tissue.
Smoking – regular smokers more commonly develop gingivitis compared with non-smokers.
Age – the risk of gingivitis increases with age.
Poor diet – especially people with vitamin C deficiency.
Family history – experts say that people whose parent(s) has/had gingivitis, have a higher risk of developing it too. This is thought to be due to the type of bacteria we acquire during our early life.
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Dr. Deepinder Singh Duggal is the founder of the 32 Pearls Multispeciality Dental Clinic, Pune. He is extremely passionate to provide his patients the best in dental treatment by utilizing state of the art modern equipment. To pursue his passion, he regularly updates his professional knowledge and puts lots of efforts to keep abreast of recent advances in treatment methodologies. Deepinder has a special interest in Cosmetic Dentistry, Implant Dentistry and Full Mouth Reconstruction.